Of the three million neonatal deaths which occurred globally in 2012, 779,000 took place in India. In India, perinatal asphyxia contributes to 20% of neonatal mortality (NMR) and 50% of early neonatal mortality (ENM) - 400 children losing their lives daily - a major public health problem. Asphyxia
can result in coma, irregular breathing, absence of neonatal reflexes, dilated pupils, irregular heart rates, and seizures which can lead to brain cell dysfunction, injury, and death if untreated. Most seriously, asphyxia can cause injury to the central nervous system. This injury is termed Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE).