Refereed Publications


Book Chapters

Refereed Publications

70. Ferreira, J.J., Carayannis, E.G., Campbell, D.F.J., Farinha, L., Lawton Smith, H., Bagchi-Sen, S. 2017. Introduction to the special issue on Geography and Entrepreneurship: Managing Growth and Change, Journal of the Knowledge Economy,


This introduction to the special issue “Geography & Entrepreneurship: Managing Growth and Change” in the Journal of The Knowledge Economy includes a collection of seven papers. Through theoretical and empirical research, this special issue aims to clarify the connection between geography and entrepreneurship. In doing so, growth strategies and change trajectories of countries, regions, and firms are analyzed. The papers use extensive data that enable the models to provide a rich picture of how academic institutions, companies, and regional governments contribute to regional development. As a result, these studies provide new perspectives on regional entrepreneurial transformation. Theoretical perspectives, methodologies, and their application to several contexts provide an advancement of our understanding about Geography and Entrepreneurship. Perspectives on R&D and knowledge, internationalization strategies, high-growth businesses, technological entrepreneurs, university spin-offs, transnational entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurial networks are dominant themes included in this special issue. A brief description of the authors’ contributions is offered to attract a broader readership.


Entrepreneurship, Geography, Managing growth, Knowledge, Change

69. Lawton Smith, H., Bagchi-Sen, S. and Edmunds, L. (accepted). Science, Innovation and Technology Transfer Pathways in Translational Research: A Study of Divergent Trajectories in the Healthcare Sector in Europe, European Urban and Regional Studies.


This paper explores place-specific factors that come together to enable firms and other kinds of organisation to produce new products, services and processes. The geography of the biomedical sector, that of clustering in particular regions, presents an opportunity for place- specific understanding of processes involved in translational research in medical sciences, particularly with regard to the role of public policy and its outcomes in four bioscience regions in Europe. This might be in the way that public sector intervention can help actors in regions better to leverage resources to create synergy, or by building physical infrastructure leading to specific local pathways of translational research through which advances in healthcare are made. To explore these themes, the paper draws on data from a recently completed EU FP7 funded study (2010-2013) Healthcare Technology and Innovation for Economic Success (HealthTIES) of the ‘Healthcare Technology Innovation cycle’ in four bioscience regions: Medical Delta (Leiden, Rotterdam and Delft, Netherlands) Oxford and the Thames Valley, (UK), Biocat (Catalonia Spain) and Life Science Zurich (Switzerland)

Key Words

Healthcare, translational research, clustering, public policy

68. Kedron*, P. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2016. Limits to policy-led innovation and industry development in US biofuels, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management,



Renewable energy industries that replace fossil fuels with biomass-based alternatives are at the forefront of a shift to and an advanced bioeconomy. In the United States, government policies promote second-generation liquid biofuels that use non-food feedstocks like switchgrass to foster industry development. Although government policies and related industry activity created a market niche for switchgrass biofuels, geographic, technical, and institutional barriers limit industry development and regional branching. Policy alone has not been enough to disrupt an industry path dominated by corn-based production. Formation of a switchgrass-based biofuel industry depends on stabilisation of production around a series of inter-related process innovations. Unlike corn-based biofuels, switchgrass and other cellulosic biofuels have no single existing related industry value chain to use to resolve coordination problems. The experience with switchgrass sheds light on the innovation process in general by drawing attention to the early stage of science and technology development.


 Innovation studies, technological change and dynamics, green technology


67. Chakraborty*, R., Lee*, J., Bagchi-Sen, S., Upadhyaya, S., Rao, H.R. 2016. Online shopping intention in the context of data breach in online retail stores: An examination of older and younger adults, Decision Support Systems. In Press.


Data breaches through hacking incidents have become a significant phenomenon in the world of online shopping. These breaches can result in loss of personal data belonging to customers. This study builds a research model to examine people's intention to engage in e-commerce in the context of a significant data breach (the Target breach in December 2013). In addition, this paper focuses on the difference in responses regarding post-breach online shopping intent among younger adults (below 55 years) and older adults (senior citizens—above 55 years). Our findings show the importance of internal (self) monitoring of bank transactions in reducing the effect of perceptions of severity of data breaches on post-breach online shopping intent particularly for senior citizens. The study also demonstrates that perceptions of severity of a hacking incident are significant drivers of perceived online shopping risk for both age groups. Further, perceptions of severity of a hacking incident are significant drivers of post-breach online shopping intent but only marginally significant for younger adults. Trusting beliefs in online shopping services and attitude toward e-commerce are significant for the older generation for post-breach online shopping intentions and also for younger adults. Gender is significant for seniors while it is not significant for younger adults. The impact of perceived online shopping risk on post-breach online shopping is significantly different between the two age groups. The implication of this research lies in informing shopping websites the need to prepare better plans for notifying customers about not only data breaches but also their proposed mitigation steps so as to increase trust and reduce perceived risks associated with online shopping.


Online shopping, Data breach, Trust, Perceived risk, Internal monitoring, Age


66. Yang, Y., Poon, J.P.H., Liu, Y., Bagchi-Sen, S. 2015. Small and flat worlds: A complex network analysis of international trade in crude oil, Energy, 93, Part 1, pp. 534-543, ISSN 0360-5442,


Global competition for crude oil has increased in the past decade with the entry of industrializing nations such as China and India. Yet we still do not know much about the spatial structure of crude oil commodity trade and its evolution over time. In this paper, we apply complex network analysis to examine the geography of global crude oil flows and its evolution based on the United Nations commodity trade database from 1988 to 2013. Attention is given to the geo-visualization of the networks that trace the rise and decline of oil hubs. The results show that world crude oil is characterized by network characteristics that capture both small world and flat world properties.


Crude oil trade, Small world, Flat world, Complex networks, GIS (geographical information system)


65. Lawton Smith, H., Bagchi-Sen, S. and Edmunds, L. 2015. Innovation capacity in the healthcare sector and historical anchors: examples from the UK, Switzerland and the US, Journal of Technology Transfer. In Press.


Innovation is an integral part of economic development in developed economies. In the post 2008 period, a key policy agenda is that of sustainable development, which calls for innovation in all aspects of value-chains. In this paper, we focus on innovation from the biotech—pharma perspective to see whether or not this will lead to a sustainable future for the regions where there are clusters of firms in this sector. We examine data from a recently completed European Union study of innovation in the Healthcare sector from the UK and Switzerland, countries with an historical base in pharma, to understand how innovation pathways vary at the regional level in the broader life sciences, which incorporate biotech and more. Innovation in the healthcare sector in two regions, Oxfordshire in the UK and Zurich in Switzerland are compared. We contextualize our discussion by drawing on studies that focus on the sector in the US, specifically Boston. The analytical framework comprises three elements: innovation systems and national and regional economic development theories are the first two, followed by approaches which consider organizational or institutional activity. This framework is used to help explain and understand the complexity of how innovation is organized at the sub-national level. The overall context is that it is increasing becoming a condition for government financing of research that it has more immediate application in industry or have the possibility of commercialisation (e.g., translational research).


Biotech, Innovation, Regional development, Oxfordshire, Zurich, Boston

64. Kisekka*, V., Chakraborty*, R., Bagchi-Sen, S., and Rao, H. R. 2015. Investigating Factors Influencing Web-Browsing Safety Efficacy (Wse) among Older Adults, Journal of Information Privacy and Security, 11(3), pp. 158-173. 10


This research investigates the ability of older adults to perceive online threats. Specifically, the factors that influence web-browsing safety efficacy (WSE) among older adults are investigated. The factors investigated are: attitude towards unsolicited email senders, risk aversion, perceived efficacy in finding information, security education, and perceived social connectivity. Partial least squares regression analysis was used to analyze a sample of older adults age 55 years and older. The results showed that risk aversion, security education, and perceived ability in finding information online were positively associated with WSE among older adults. No relationship was found between social connectedness and attitude towards unsolicited e-mail senders.

63. Trgovac*, D., Kedron*, P., and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2015. Geographic Variation in Male Suicide Rates in the United States, Applied Geography, 62, pp. 201-209.


This study examines geographic variability of factors associated with male suicide in the United States using county-level data covering 2000 to 2006. Three variables are used as indicators of social isolation: separated/divorced marital status, migration status, and unemployment. A geographically weighted regression analysis shows variation from analogous global ordinary least squares and spatial error regression analyses. Separated/divorced marital status demonstrated a global positive influence. Migration and unemployment effects ranged from positive to negative across the United States, showing some geographic clustering. The findings suggest regional variation is masked by global models and the effect of social isolation indicators have on suicide may vary with geographic context. Any detection of at-risk population will require careful evaluation of privacy issues given the sensitive nature of the health topic.


Health geography, Geographically weighted regression, Social isolation, Self-harmMale suicide


62. Frazier*, A.E. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2015. Developing open space networks in shrinking cities, Applied Geography, 59, pp. 1-10.


Urban green spaces provide essential ecosystem services and improve resident quality of life, but open space networks are often fragmented by urban development, and it is difficult to reclaim natural lands after they have been built up. Shrinking cities (i.e., cities experiencing population decline) typically contain an abundance of vacant and abandoned residential buildings that are demolished for safety and maintenance reasons. The resulting empty lots can potentially be reclaimed as natural areas to defragment the green network and increase open space connectivity. To date however, planning efforts have largely ignored post-demolition land uses for these lots, allowing many to become empty wastelands. This research approaches this gap by presenting an alternative plan for residential demolition sites using landscape ecology principles and methods to incorporate them into the open space network. Using Buffalo, NY – a typical rustbelt shrinking city – as a case study, areas most at risk for experiencing demolitions are identified using a clustering technique, and each building within the cluster is assigned a likelihood it will be demolished using a logit model. Properties with the highest risk for demolition are then prioritized based on their ability to contribute to and connect the open space network using landscape connectivity metrics. Results indicate the approach can foster large increases in green network connectivity using small parcels (a 356% increase in total open space area was observed in this study after three years of purposeful selection), allowing cities to reclaim unused urban areas and defragment the open space network.


Defragmentation, Open space, Urban decline, GIS, Conefor

61. Lee*, Chang Ho, Bagchi-Sen, S. and Poon, J.P. 2015. Facilitators and Outcomes of University-Industry Collaboration in a Triple Helix Setting in a US Medical Campus, Industry and Higher Education, 29, pp. 37-50.


The Triple Helix framework focuses attention on institutional interactions within innovation systems. In particular, it is important to understand the nature of university–industry interactions such as the translation of university expertise to clinically and commercially viable innovations. This paper examines university and industry collaboration practices in the context of the innovative, entrepreneurial and translational research environment at the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus (BNMC) and at the University at Buffalo–State University of New York. The findings highlight the importance of funding opportunities and networks. Collaboration predominantly assumes the form of consultancy, contract research and joint research. The benefits of consulting and contract research are increased knowledge production through publications, grant applications and patenting activities among BNMC scientists. Collaboration with industry through joint research is more likely to lead to entrepreneurial outcomes than any other effort to engage industry.


university–industry interaction, Triple Helix, innovation

60. Weaver*, R.C. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2015. Racially Polarized Voting in a Southern U.S. Election: How Urbanization and Residential Segregation Shape Voting Patterns. The Review of Regional Studies, 45, pp. 15-34.


This paper advances a model of racially polarized voting that captures the intervening effects of urbanization and residential segregation on white voters’ political behavior. The model is tested for a 2011 referendum election in the U.S. state of Mississippi. Using King’s method of ecological inference and weighted least squares regression, we find that regional minority population size impacts white opposition to minority-preferred political alternatives both directly and indirectly through an effect on residential racial segregation. Importantly, these influences hinge on intra-regional patterns of urbanization. The findings have important implications for understanding spatial variation in regional political behavior and intergroup relations.


Regional political behavior, race, polarization, urban, segregation, southern politics

59. Weaver*, R. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2014. Evolutionary Analysis of Neighborhood Decline Using Multilevel Selection Theory. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 104, pp. 765-783.


This article proposes an analytical framework of neighborhood decline grounded in evolutionary multilevel selection (MLS) theory. We demonstrate that MLS allows for the unification of at least two distinct theoretical approaches—the ecological and the political economy approaches—to analyzing urban change. From these developments we generate three hypotheses about intracity dynamics. The hypotheses are tested with longitudinal data using space–time regression, simulation, and spatial hedonic methods. The methodology and results reveal that qualitative neighborhood change is endogenously determined through the actions of neighborhood households, but such that household actions and neighborhood sociospatial organization are shaped by externally driven sorting processes. Further, household behaviors are highly dependent on microlevel neighborhood contexts. These findings suggest that existing schools of neighborhood change are not mutually exclusive. Rather, their interplay at multiple spatial resolutions showcases the hierarchical and evolutionary nature of cities. Such insights can be usefully incorporated into urban policy discourses.

Key Words

Decline, evolutionary urban geography, housing, multilevel selection, neighborhood

58. Bagchi-Sen, S. and Lawton Smith, H. 2013. Firm heterogeneity in biotech: absorptive capacity, strategies, and local-regional connections, European Planning Studies. DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2013.801572.


This paper focuses on the characteristics of biotech firms with various levels of research and development (R&D) activity. It is done by exploring the relationship between R&D intensity, alliances and the extent of regionalization of firms' activities using evidence from a survey of US-based biotechnology firms. We profile two firm prototypes: research-oriented firms and product-oriented firms, focusing on their characteristics, strategies and operations. These include activities devoted to exploration and exploitation through alliances with universities (more exploration) and with pharmaceutical companies (exploration and exploitation), and locational needs which facilitate both exploration and exploitation.

57. Poon, J., Kedron*, P., and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2013. Do foreign subsidiaries innovate and perform better in a cluster? A spatial analysis of Japanese subsidiaries in the US. Applied Geography, 44, pp. 33-42.


The interrelationship between clustering, innovation, and performance of Japanese subsidiaries in the US is examined in this paper. First, we apply Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to identify process innovation clustering among Japanese subsidiaries. The scale at which clustering occurs is regional rather than local, and cluster location captures the geographical environment of home-transplants from Japan. Second, we apply spatial autoregressive models to test the relationship between cluster location and innovation among Japanese subsidiaries. The results indicate that cluster location strengthens the relationship between subsidiary innovation and firm performance. Negative spatial autocorrelation shows that clustering contributes to innovation by facilitating proximate learning between less innovative laggards, and, leading innovative Japanese subsidiaries.


Cluster, Innovation, Kuldorff's scan, Spatial autoregressive models, Japanese subsidiary

56. Kisekka*, V., Bagchi-Sen, S., and Rao, H.R. 2013. Extent of private information disclosure on online social networks: An exploration of Facebook mobile phone users. Computers in Human Behavior, 29 (6), pp. 2722-2729


The present study adopts the Communication Privacy Management theory and investigates the factors that influence the extent of private information disclosure of Facebook mobile phone users. Using a sample size of 488 adult mobile phone users, the study further investigates the differential impact of age on the extent of private information disclosure. Results from the logistic regressions run reveal that use of smartphones to access social networking sites, use of multiple social networks, and being female decrease the likelihood of private information disclosure. In addition, usability problems increase the likelihood of information disclosure by older adults. The analyses show no association between perceived benefit and private information disclosure.


Information disclosure, Older adults, Online social networks, Online privacy, Facebook, Mobile phone users

55. Weaver*, R.C. and S. Bagchi-Sen. 2013. Spatial Analysis of Urban Decline: The Geography of Blight, Applied Geography, 40, pp. 61-70.


Urban studies literature suggests that anti-blight resources are frequently deployed in arbitrary fashions for short-term political objectives, rather than in concentrated, empirically-driven ways intended to manage complex urban problems. This creates an ambiguous and subjective conceptualization of blight in practice, which often leads to mismatches between actual urban conditions and codified public policy targets. Therefore, this research points to the practical need for an operational definition of blight. It is reasonable to assume that focusing anti-blight efforts in spaces identified using empirical data will increase the efficiency of a city's policy efforts. To that end this paper quantifies blight with an approach that is replicable by virtually any city in the United States. We then examine blight patterns for a selected city using spatial clustering methods that highlight areas where policy intervention might be warranted. The findings demonstrate how spatial analysis combined with contextual urban geographic information can assist local policymakers in identifying and understanding the geographies of blight in their


Urban, Blight, Decline, Policy

54. Frazier*, A.E., S. Bagchi-Sen, and J. Knight*. 2013. The Spatio-Temporal Impacts of Demolition Land Use Policy and Crime in a Shrinking City, Applied Geography, 41, pp. 55-64.


Land use change, in the form of urbanization, is one of the most significant forms of global change, and most cities are experiencing a rapid increase in population and infrastructure growth. However, a subset of cities is experiencing a decline in population, which often manifests in the abandonment of residential structures. These vacant and abandoned structures pose a land use challenge to urban planners, and a key question has been how to manage these properties. Often times land use management of these structures takes the form of demolition, but the elimination of infrastructures and can have unknown and sometimes unintended effects on the human–environment interactions in urban areas. This paper examines the association between demolitions and crime, a human–environment interaction that is fostered by vacant and abandoned properties, through a comparative statistical analysis. A cluster analysis is performed to identify high and low hot spots of demolition and crime activity, specifically assault, drug arrests, and prostitution, over a 5-year period. Results show that there is an association between the area targeted for significant demolition activity and the migration of spatial patterns of certain crimes. The direction of crime movement toward the edges of the city limits and in the direction of the first ring suburbs highlights the importance of regional planning when implementing land use policies for smart decline in shrinking cities.


Shrinking cities, Human–environment interactions, Demolition, Crime, Cluster analysis, Regional planning, Policy, Buffalo

53. Kedron*, P. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2012. Foreign direct investment in Europe by multinational pharmaceutical companies from India, Journal of Economic Geography, Vol. 12(4), pp. 809-839.


This article analyzes European market entry by emerging market multinational enterprises (EMMNE). The theoretical basis of the analysis is EMMNE decisions to operate in advanced nations to exploit and augment ownership-specific advantages. Two Indian pharmaceuticals, Ranbaxy and Dr Reddy's, are used as evidence to support arguments in the literature. Indian pharmaceutical companies originated as generic manufacturers but succeed in European markets by simultaneously pursuing multiple foreign operations motivated by asset augmenting and asset exploiting goals. Dr Reddy's and Ranbaxy use a repetitious cycle of earning (e.g. asset exploitation through generic sales) and learning (e.g. asset augmentation through acquisition of product pipelines, technology) to achieve market growth. That is, past European operations support present entries into new markets, which facilitate future entry strategies across the value-chain (e.g. upstream into R&D). This article contributes to our understanding of interdependencies among firms, markets and institutions and our knowledge of EMMNEs and FDI.

52. Bagchi-Sen, S. and Helen Lawton Smith. 2012. The role of the U.S. university as an agent of regional development, Geography Compass, Vol. 6(7), pp. 439-453.


Universities are commonly seen by policy makers as being key actors in the knowledge‐based economy. In the United States, universities, but particularly research universities, have been the focus of many studies which have sought to document and explain the commercial impact of university‐based research on regional economies. For example, studies have analyzed the extent and outcomes of academic entrepreneurship and of university‐industry collaborations. The focus of this paper is to review this literature with a specific focus on contradictory and inconclusive results. Data for these studies are obtained from a number of sources such as self‐administered surveys, patent office, the National Science Foundation and the Association of University Technology Managers. This paper reviews the literature and highlights the variety of conceptual frameworks, data, and methodology used. It has a specific focus on assessing impact over time as well the difficulty in generalizing the result obtained from one study to another context. In spite of these problems, the evidence from a broad range and increasing volume of literature on trends and characteristics of academic entrepreneurship and university‐industry collaborations shows that universities indisputably play a major role in their regions.

51. Lawton Smith, Helen and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2011. The research university, entrepreneurship and regional development: research propositions and current evidence, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, Vol. 24(5-6), pp. 383-404. 11


The objective of this paper is to set a framework for examining the conditions under which a research university becomes more than a latent asset [Power, D., and A. Malmberg. 2008. The contribution of universities to innovation and economic development: In what sense a regional problem? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society 1, no. 2: 233–46.] in regional economies. The framework is comprised of four propositions used to identify drivers of change, evidence of change and evidence of impact. As an exemplar, we examine the University of Oxford's growing engagement in its local region. This paper shows that the convergence between the interests of the university and the local high-tech economy is particularly associated with broader technological trends and with the University's capacity to draw on national funding programmes designed to stimulate ‘third-stream’ activities, including entrepreneurship courses and regional networking activities.


research universities, regional development, Oxford University, Oxfordshire

50. Kedron*, P. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2011. US market entry processes of emerging multinationals: A case of Indian pharmaceutical, Applied Geography 31(2): 721-730.


This paper examines the foreign market entry strategies used by Indian pharmaceuticals to enter the United States. We use Dunning’s eclectic theory and its extensions to develop an understanding of how firm-specific and location-specific advantages are combined to exploit (e.g., sales in the US) and augment (e.g., access to R&D) assets by Indian pharmaceuticals. Two pharmaceuticals with significant market presence in the United States are used as cases: Ranbaxy and Dr. Reddy’s (DRL). Our findings suggest that Indian pharmaceuticals employ multiple strategies adjustable to changing internal and external conditions in order to gain a foothold in the United States. Market entry is not a one-time operation; Indian pharmaceuticals continually reassess their entry strategy and consider it within a wider combination of simultaneous strategies. For example, exporting a generic drug formulation into the US after a legal battle with an incumbent competitor does not inhibit acquisitions in complimentary drug markets, or preclude present or future research partnerships with that same incumbent company. The pursuit of multiple strategies at the same time allows developing country multinationals to succeed in the United States as latecomers compared to other generic manufacturers, domestic and foreign, who have their operations for a much longer period of time.


Indian pharmaceuticals, Market entry, Multinationals, Asset exploitation, Asset augmentation

49. Kedron*, P. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2011. A study of the emerging renewable energy sector within Iowa, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 101(4), pp. 882-896.


This article offers an understanding of the evolution of Iowa's ethanol industry landscape. A conceptual framework based on a techno-economic paradigm of networked organizations and associated regional innovation systems is used to understand linkages among organizations involved in the ethanol production value-chain. Iowa is an adapter region—federal and state policies conducive to renewable energy and ethanol production encouraged new entrants to the sector. Farmers became business owners through cooperatives and outsourced refinery design and sometimes management. The state also attracted integrated large firms, including agri-processors and an oil refiner, which leveraged additional support from the local government and indirectly affected federal policy through their position in industry associations. University research, extension services, government laboratories, and foreign companies got involved in the process, directly and indirectly, through research and development (R&D), farmers’ support, and other related services. The ethanol industry's future depends on progress in R&D (cellulosic ethanol), innovation, shifts in embedding environmental concerns in economic processes, and policy. Subsidies and mandates across the value-chain and innovative shifts in products and processes will continue to influence the restructuring of how the industry is organized.


ethanol, policy, regional system, renewable energy

48. Bagchi-Sen, S., Kedron*, P., and Scully*, J. 2011. A study of R&D, collaboration, and location preferences of health and agricultural biotech firm, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy Vol. 29(3), pp. 473 – 486.


The biotechnology industry is now a top priority of state and regional economic development organizations. Existing geographic research focuses on what motivates the development of regional clusters of biotechnology firms in the area of human therapeutics and diagnostics. However, the biotechnology industry is segmented into broad subsectors, such as health and agricultural biotech, and each sector has different types of firms. The purpose of this paper is to characterize firm-specific differences that exist between health and agricultural biotechnology firms. Specifically, we use a survey instrument to understand how firms in each sector perceive and use different forms of collaboration and location factors in their operations. Although firms in each sector may pursue similar goals and support for innovation, they do not necessarily do so in the same fashion. By treating agricultural and health biotechnology sectors separately, we offer new evidence to reevaluate theories explaining regional biotechnology development, and new insights into how development policies impact each sector. The insights provided by this paper are critical given the prevalence of policy initiatives supporting biotechnology.

47. Lawton Smith, H. and. Bagchi-Sen, S. 2010. Triple Helix and regional development: a perspective from Oxfordshire in the UK, Technology Analysis and Strategic Management Vol. 22 (7), pp. 805-818.


This paper illustrates that distinctive patterns of regional development can be understood as resulting from the relative dominance of the three components in the triple helix model at any one time. This approach can be used to understand why high growth sectors, such as biotechnology, are concentrated at particular locations. Using the example of the biotechnology sector in Oxfordshire (UK), we examine how differences in formal (e.g. institutional arrangements) and informal networks are influenced by broader geographical, political, economic and social environments. These differences produce distinctive regional forms of the triple helix model. Oxfordshire is a national centre of the sector, having the key ingredients of a concentration of universities and government laboratories, heavily supported by government, and a growing number of biotech firms. The distinctive features of the Oxfordshire variant are that the role of Oxford University, a world centre for biomedical research, is secondary at the regional level rather than being dominant as might be expected and that the availability of skills, underplayed in traditional presentations of the model, is far more significant.


triple helix, regional development, biotechnology, UK

46. Jongsthapongpanth*, A. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2010. Spatial and sex differences in AIDS mortality in Chiang Rai, Thailand, Health and Place, Vol. 16(6), pp. 1084–1093


Aggregate mortality data do not tell us if AIDS mortality is uniformly reduced or if there is spatial differentiation. A total of 2432 male and 1864 female deaths (2000–2004) from AIDS in Chiang Rai are used to detect mortality clusters. Both male and female clusters are more or less in the same location implying similar risk factors; however, male clusters remain more prevalent as male patients are likely to be slower in getting treatment. The findings indicate non-random clustering and confirm that although mortality rates are significantly reduced in most areas some sub-districts need attention for follow-up public health efforts.


AIDS mortality, Clustering, Spatial analysis, Thailand

45. Jongsthapongpanth*, A. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2010. The Context and Impact of HIV and AIDS in Chiang Rai, Thailand: A Study of Youth and Young Adults, Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 100(1), pp. 30-56.


This study examines the geographic variation in the incidence of HIV/AIDS in Chiang Rai, one of the northern districts of Thailand with a very high rate of HIV infection and AIDS. A related goal of this study is to understand the socioeconomic impact of the disease. First, spatial analysis is used to estimate the effects of local determinants on the incidence of HIV and AIDS. Second, standardized questionnaire surveys of patients are conducted to understand the individual context of the disease. Finally, in-depth qualitative interviews are used to examine the socioeconomic impact of the disease at the individual level. Results show that localities with a relatively high percentage of households engaged as laborers, localities close to municipal areas, and those with a high concentration of commercial sex workers are significantly correlated with high incidence rates. Places close to municipal areas are typically more urbanized, with diverse income groups and businesses in their vicinity. These areas have higher levels of risk factors compared to places that are remote. The interview-based analysis shows that HIV/AIDS patients, from diverse education and income backgrounds and different levels of comfort with disclosure and disease intensity, have shown equally diverse levels of suffering and coping strategies. Their response is not only dictated by the intensity of the disease but by their own acceptance of their disease status, an understanding of the disease and treatment options, their fear of stigma, and the reaction of family, friends, partners, and health workers.

Key Words

HIV and AIDS, local determinants, socioeconomic impact, Thailand

44. Levitte, Y. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2010. Demographics, Innovative Outputs, and Alliance Strategies of Canadian Biotech Firms, European Planning Studies, Vol. 18(5), pp. 669-690.


This paper focuses on the characteristics of biotech firms that consider alliances as critical to the innovation and commercialization of biotech-based products. First, we consider alliances with both universities and industries. Next, we examine attributes for those firms who consider proximity to universities as critical compared with others that do not put high value on physical proximity. Our study is informed by the literature on the biotechnology industry as well as studies on absorptive capacity, alliances and clusters in exploration and exploitation of knowledge, research and technologies. We analyse data based on a 2002 survey of Canadian biotech firms and find that while collaborative arrangements with universities are the most common among our sample firms, those who assign a high value to such linkages are not necessarily always the biotech firms experiencing commercial success.

43. Lee*, J., Bagchi-Sen, S., Rao, H.R. and Upadhyaya, S. 2010. Anatomy of the Information Security Workforce, IT Professional, Vol.12, no.1, pp.14-23. doi: 10.1109/MITP.2010.23


Survey results indicate that the information security workforce, one of the fastest growing subgroups in IT, is a unique professional niche with distinctive task responsibilities, job market conditions, and training needs. Given the demand for the information security workforce, this paper offers useful insight to various stakeholders, including prospective information security professionals, employers, educational institutions, and industry steering (government) authorities. Specifically, our study results should help companies, prospective information security professionals, and educational institutions alike understand the issues pertaining to this labor niche and fulfill the increasing labor demands.

42. Bagchi-Sen, S., Rao, H.R., Upadhyaya, S., and Chai*, Sangmi. 2010. Women in Cybersecurity: A Study of Career Advancement, IT Professional, vol.12, no.1, pp. 24-31. doi: 10.1109/MITP.2010.39


Although cybersec¿rity is a critical IT area, women continue to be underrepresented among its ranks. This first study of female cybersecurity professionals examines the required skills, existing challenges, and key success factors for women in the field.As our results show, addressing the needs of women at the beginning of their careers-starting at educational institutions-is crucial to their successful entry and success in the field.Currently, the US government has responded to this issue by providing grants to attract and train women in cybersecurity at the university level.

41. Ghosh, C., Jongsthapongpanth*, A. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2009. Survival of an AIDS Cohort in Thailand (2000-2005), AIDS Care, Vol. 21(12), pp. 1568-1577.


This study investigates the survival from the time of diagnosis to death of 98,876 men and 57,316 women between the ages of 15 and 96 years who received medical care at public and private hospitals in Thailand after being diagnosed with symptomatic HIV-positive or AIDS between 2000 and 2005 from all regions of Thailand. Using a retrospective cohort study, risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are estimated by the Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, gender, marital status, occupation, region of residence, and year of diagnosis. Significant increased risk of mortality is observed for patients diagnosed with AIDS as compared to those with symptomatic HIV-positive, the risk being approximately twofold for men (RR=2.37, 95% CI=2.27, 2.47), almost threefold for women (RR=2.85, 95% CI=2.69, 3.02), and more than threefold for women in the 15–24-year age group (RR=3.36, 95% CI=2.83, 3.98). The risk also varied from being twofold in the northern region of Thailand (RR=2.23, 95% CI=2.11, 2.35) to being threefold in the northeast (RR=3.05, 95% CI=2.79, 3.32). Our findings of increased risk of mortality for subgroups of the population suggest the need for sustained attention to HIV prevention efforts with support from society at large, and to the early diagnosis and treatment of these patients, especially women and youth.

Keywords: HIVmortalitysurvivalriskproportional hazards modelThailand


40. Chai*, S., Bagchi-Sen, S., Morrell, C., Rao, H.R., and Upadhyaya, S. 2009. Internet and Online Information Privacy: An Exploratory Study of Preteens and Early Teens, Professional Communication, IEEE Transactions on , vol.52, no.2, pp.167-182. doi: 10.1109/TPC.2009.2017985 (Best Paper Award at the Informing Science and Information Technology Education joint conference-InSite 2006, Salford, UK, June 25-28).


Information security and privacy on the internet are critical issues in our society. In this research, we examine factors that influence Internet users' private-information-sharing behavior. Based on a survey of 285 preteens and early teens, who are among the most vulnerable groups on the Web, this study provides a research framework that explains an internet user's information privacy protection behavior. According to our study results, internet users' information privacy behaviors are affected by two significant factors: (1) users' perceived importance of information privacy and (2) information privacy self-efficacy. The study also found that users believe in the value of online information privacy and that information privacy protection behavior varies by gender. Our findings indicate that educational opportunities regarding internet privacy and computer security as well as concerns from other reference groups (e.g., peer, teacher, and parents) play an important role in positively affecting the Internet users' protective behavior regarding online privacy.

39. Lawton Smith, H., Romeo*, S., and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2008. Oxfordshire Biomedical University Spin-offs: An Evolving System, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Vol. 1 (2), 303-319.


The creation of university spin-offs and the development of its biotechnology industry are two of the UK's and many other countries' top research-to-commercialisation priorities. Usually more is known about the numbers of spin-offs than their performance. This paper analyses the performance of 56 biomedical spin-offs from Oxfordshire's universities and public sector research laboratories with respect to human resources, the degree of innovative capability and internationalisation. In so doing, it explores the contribution of this group of firms to the evolution of science-based industry in this particular location which is one of the UK's leading centres of research and innovation.

38. Bagchi-Sen, S. and Lawton Smith, H. 2008. Science, Institutions and Markets: Developments in the Indian Biotechnology Sector, Regional Studies, Volume 42 (7), pp. 961-975.


To be competitive Indian pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies pursue both imitative and innovation-based strategies. Some undertake contractual clinical research from multinationals now that product patents have replaced process patenting. The barriers for innovation are the lack of funds and regulations. Government funding bodies have to reconcile the goals: science for society versus science for profit. The regulatory process (e.g. time taken for drug approvals) is in need of change. In recent years the industry has become more regionalized – states are proactive in promoting bioscience complexes through parks and institutes (e.g. Bangalore and Hyderabad). This has implications for clustered economic development.

Keywords: InnovationBiotechnologyPharmaceutical industryIndia

37. Gress*, D. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2007. Making a Niche: North American Voice Actors and Korean Labor Intermediaries in Seoul, Korea, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 31 (3), pp. 561–578.


This article analyzes the role of intermediaries in the newly forming and demand‐driven niche market of English voice dubbing in Seoul, Korea. Standardized surveys and structured interviews of North American voice actors and South Korean agents are used to gather data. The findings suggest that cultural and structural embeddedness as well as ‘power’ be integrated into studies of intermediary‐facilitated networks, particularly when foreign workers are adjusting to a local work environment. Research results reveal six network configurations that represent the structural embeddedness of networks deployed by agents, voice actors, client firms and studios active in this niche market. The power and trust associated with these relationships is studied vis‐à‐vis the culturally embedded environment of the local market in Seoul. Agents conform to Benner's typologies in that they are highly specialized in their market segments, reduce transaction costs and help manage risk, and act as ‘market makers’.

36. Bagchi-Sen, S. and Scully*, J. 2007. Strategies and External Relationships of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in the U.S. Agricultural Biotechnology Sector, Environment and Planning C, Vol. 25 (6), pp. 844-860.


This paper examines the characteristics of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) involved in the agricultural biotechnology (agro-bio) sector. Specific objectives are to understand firm-specific strategies utilized to remain competitive in an uncertain business environment, and to examine the impact of government/policy and farmers on strategies. The controversial nature of processes used and the ethical debate surrounding genetically modified organisms (GMOs) contribute to an ongoing struggle for these firms in negotiating their position in society as innovators. Data from surveys of US-based firms and farmers are used to show how firms respond to external conditions and how farmers adjust to the GMO controversy, and, in turn, affect the business of biotech. At first cut, the data suggest that firms are worried only about science; as the survey probes into firm-level evaluation of external actors, the importance of Federal over local – regional initiatives stand out. While states are investing to promote biotechnology clusters, the lack of perceived importance of state/local level efforts to innovators is of particular significance. The discussion also notes the disconnect between policymakers and SMEs. Farmers point out the indirect effect of public opinion in sustaining the business of agro-bio. This study raises questions about gaps in our understanding of the relationship among firms (innovators), users (farmers who are the traditional innovators), and the government (regulator – facilitator) in the agro-bio subsector of the biotech industry. The need to engage other partners (food companies, wholesalers, retailers, consumer groups) in understanding the prospect of agro-bio is evident.

35. Poon, J.P., Sajaranachotte*, S., Bagchi-Sen, S. 2007. The Role of US Defense Exports in Asia Pacific Regionalism, Political Geography, Vol. 25 (7), pp. 715-734


Despite the emergence of a regional economic space, political integration in the form of institutional building has yet to take shape in the Asia Pacific. On the one hand, the area is constructed as part of a localized space articulated in terms of relatively self-contained regional economic networks. On the other hand, Asia Pacific remains fractured in geopolitical structures, relying heavily on the US to organize the region, particularly in the post-war period. This paper focuses on the nature of lagging regional political integration and examines the role that US defense trade (1989–2004), and to a lesser extent military presence, plays in this. Specifically, it shows that US geopolitical strategy, influenced heavily by a realist framework, displays a pattern of bilateral courtship where its defense trade is positively related to allies in Asia. This relationship results in stronger trans-Pacific than regional linkages, inserting an otherwise localized Asian economic space into the more diffused global US-centered geopolitical space.


Defense exports, Military presence, Asia Pacific, Geopolitics, Regionalism

34. Jongsthapongpanth*, A. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2007. US-Asia Interdependencies, Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, Vol.12 (2), pp. 215–249.


In the past two decades, US–Asia linkages have improved tremendously with the gradual transformation of some Asian countries as sources of high skilled as well as low cost labor. Extensive research on US–Japan relationships have been undertaken in the 1980s and the 1990s with a progression of research toward the four tigers and now China. South and South East Asian economies are usually neglected in academic research on Asia. This paper provides a comprehensive examination of business links (trade, foreign direct investment, licensing, and patents) and knowledge links (labor flow, publications and citations) within the context of technology transfer and technology cooperation between the two regions. The data show that the United States is increasingly dependent on imports from Asia while Asian nations are dependent on US FDI and technology licenses. For knowledge links, the United States continues to attract Asian scientists and engineers and, over the past ten years, interregional collaborations have strengthened. Economic linkages in the past 30 years are now complemented by knowledge links, which is creating transnational knowledge networks and will eventually facilitate further development of the science and technology workforce and innovation in Asian nations.

Keywords: USAsiabusiness linkagesknowledge connections

33. Bagchi-Sen, S. 2007. Strategic Considerations for Innovation and Commercialization in the US Biotechnology Sector, European Planning Studies, Vol.12 (7), pp. 961–983.


This paper examines the importance of alliances as an innovation strategy utilized by US biotechnology firms. In doing so, the role of alliances with universities vis-à-vis alliances with industrial companies is emphasized. The biotechnology sector is dominated by few large and many small firms. The small firms are research focused or technology developers. Several large firms are now integrated biopharmaceutical companies. Very few small firms can survive without strengthening their relationships with universities, biotechnology or pharmaceutical or other large companies. These relationships range from licensing agreements, export–import connections to various forms of alliances for R&D, product development and marketing. Large firms supplement in-house R&D by acquiring research products and/or new technologies from small firms as well as universities. A survey of US biotechnology companies is used to show the emergence of alliance relationships, which continue to highlight university linkages, emphasize connections of biotechnology firms with other biotechnology entrepreneurs, and an ongoing effort to build a synergistic relationship with pharmaceutical or other large companies. Most linkages are not confined to the local area; the main locational attribute is the science base or the labour market.

32. Hall*, L. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2007. An Analysis of Firm-Level Strategies in the US Biotechnology Industry, Technovation: The International Journal of Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Technology Management, Vol. 27, pp. 4-14.


This study examines factors that may affect innovation strategies and performance of firms in the biotechnology industry. Specifically, differences between factors common to firms with high R&D intensity and those to firms with low R&D intensity are investigated. Biotechnology firms with relatively higher levels of R&D intensity attribute their innovation performance to research-based innovation factors and strategies such as strengthening their own research capabilities, entering into research collaborations with universities, industry leaders and other biotech firms, and licensing their technology. These strategies can be summarized as alignment within the industry. Firms with relatively lower R&D intensity have a hybrid focus—they invest in R&D but may also have products on the market. These firms attribute their innovation performance more so to production-based innovation factors and strategies such as gaining market access and maintaining connections with customers. Their strategy focuses on competitiveness, marketing, and distribution channels, while not ignoring the importance of a strong research base and the need to advance technologically. In a sense, strategies employed to achieve successful innovation reflect the stage of innovation in which a firm is operating for a particular product or process.

31. Agarwal*, S., Gupta, V., and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2006. Insights into US Public Biotech Sector Using Patenting Trends, Nature Biotechnology, Vol. 24(6), pp. 643-651.

30. Lawton Smith, H. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2006. University-industry interactions: the case of the UK biotech industry, Industry and Innovation, Vol. 13, pp. 371-392.


This paper's focus is on both the geography of entrepreneurship and on industry‐collaborative links internationally, nationally and at the local level in the UK biotech industry, the world's second largest biotech industry. The paper reports on a pilot survey of the UK biotech industry. The survey has two goals: to understand the business goals of the firms and to examine the relative importance of local conditions to the business of biotech. Further evidence on these two themes comes from two studies of Oxfordshire, one of the UK's centres of biomedical science and biotechnology. The first is a survey of the county's biotech firms. The second, of academic spin‐offs, demonstrates how the business of biotech in the UK is intimately tied to the national innovation system, which in turn is dependent upon highly localised elite science which in turn signals to world elites that the region is a hot‐spot for innovation.

Keywords: Biotechnologyuniversitiesbusiness strategiesUKpublic policyOxfordshire

29. Chai*, S., Bagchi-Sen, S., Morrell, C., Rao, H.R., Upadhyaya. S. 2006. Role of Perceived Importance of Information Security: An Exploratory Study of Middle School Children’s Information Security Behavior, Issues in Informing Science and Information Technology, Vol. 3, pp. 127-135.


Information security and privacy on the Internet are critical issues in our society. Importantly, children and adolescents need to understand the potential risk of using the Internet. In this research, we examine factors that motivate students' Information Security Behavior on the Internet. A pilot survey of middle and junior high school students is the source of the data. This study provides a model that explains students' behavior pertaining to Information Security. A significant research finding is that students' perceived importance of Information Security plays a critical role in influencing their Information Security Behavior.

Keywords: Information Security, Self-efficacy, Internet, Perceived Importance, Information Security Behavior.

28. Banerjee, S., Kang*, H., Bagchi-Sen, S., and Rao, H.R. 2005. Gender Divide in the Use of the Internet Applications, International Journal of E-Business Research, Vol. 1 (2), pp. 24-39. [invited article]


There is mounting evidence of an increasing gender gap in computer education, which translates into a similar gap in the information technology workforce in the United States. This study investigates whether gender difference in computer usage is carried over to Internet usage. This paper focuses on exploring gender differences in the use of the Internet and the types of application people pursue online. The study will examine if there are fewer females using the Internet than males and will explore how gender difference plays a role in using the Internet for information search, interpersonal communication, entertainment, education, shopping, and personal finance. In addition, we investigate the male-female difference in Internet use by race, age, and educational level. Data used in this study are based on the September 2001 U.S. Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey, a survey of approximately 50,000 households and more than 157,000 individuals across the United States. The analysis of data shows reverse trends regarding gender in the use of the Internet; furthermore, more females show Internet usage than males for e-mail or instant messaging, for taking an online course, for searching information about products and services, for purchasing products or services, for searching for health services or practices, for getting information about government, and for searching for jobs. However, more males use the Internet than females to play games; for chat rooms or listserv; to get news, weather, or sports; for viewing television, movies, or radio; for telephone calls; to trade stocks, bonds, and mutual funds; and for online banking. The implications of these results are also discussed.

27. Kang*, H., Bagchi-Sen, S., Rao, H.R., and Banerjee, S. 2005. Internet Skeptics: An Analysis of Intermittent Users and Net-Dropouts, IEEE Technology and Society, Vol. 24 (2), pp. 26-31.


The digital divide has often been discussed with respect to the two opposite sides of the spectrum: the "haves" and "have-nots". However there is a gray area which consist of two particular categories: a) Internet users who did use the Internet at one time and have since stopped, or b) the large number of Internet users who stopped using the Internet but then restarted using it. Such Internet users have not received much academic attention. Studies of the digital divide would be incomplete without an analysis of these categories. This study has been a descriptive investigation of the populace that is neither a digital-have or nor a digital-have-not.

26. Bagchi-Sen, S. and Scully*, J. 2004. The Canadian Environment for Innovation and Business Development in the Biotechnology Industry: A Firm-Level Analysis, European Planning Studies, Vol. 12 (7), pp. 961-983.


This paper is an empirical study of firm‐specific characteristics in the Canadian biotechnology sector. The research context examines the national system of innovation and regional infrastructure in place for the biotechnology industry. Literature on the Canadian biotechnology industry is not as extensive as studies on the US biotechnology industry. The current analysis shows that the Canadian sector is innovative and outward looking. One group of firms is more research oriented and the other is more product/process oriented. The first group emphasises the need to expand their science base through increased funding including inward foreign investment. The second group emphasises organisational needs such as improved feedback from product development and manufacturing to R&D; the development of manufacturing capabilities; the need to find new Canadian buyers; and the internationalisation of R&D through outward foreign direct investment. Place‐specific characteristics matter to the process of innovation and commercialisation for both groups: firms with high levels of R&D intensity seek access to scientists, universities, pharmaceutical companies and funding. Firms with low levels of R&D intensity seek access to manufacturing facilities and customers. An analysis of geographic or sectoral variation in strategies could not be accomplished due to data limitations. However, the results show the importance of Canadian participation in the internationalisation of innovation and commercialisation of biotechnology products. Such a trend needs to be considered in Canada's international negotiations pertaining to policies and regulations of international trade and investment (both inward and outward foreign direct investment) in biotechnology products.

25. Bagchi-Sen, S., Lawton Smith, H. and Hall*, L. 2004. The US Biotechnology Industry: Industry Dynamics and Policy, Environment and Planning C, Vol. 22 (2), pp. 199-216.


The inseparability of the biotechnology industry and the state is a central theme in the analysis of the location and performance of biotechnology industry in the US and elsewhere. This paper reports on the results of a survey of US biotechnology companies looking particularly at their assessment of needs, barriers, strategies, and government programs. The paper shows that although there is an increasing level of federal and state intervention, there are considerable barriers faced by biotechnology firms, which may or may not be resolved in the near future because of the nature of the business of biotechnology, which involves uncertainties at every stage of innovation and commercialisation.

24. Bagchi-Sen, S. 2004. Firm-Specific Characteristics of R&D Collaborators and NonCollaborators in U.S. Biotechnology Clusters and Elsewhere, International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, Vol. 1(1), pp. 92-118.


This study examines the difference between collaborators and non-collaborators, in clusters and elsewhere, in the US biotechnology industry. In doing so, the relationship among R&D intensity, collaboration, innovation, and location is examined. Particular attention is given to R&D strategies of these firms, with regard to university-based collaborations and the importance of location for collaboration. Firms with higher levels of R&D intensity are more intent on engaging in R&D alliances, especially research collaborations with universities. Many alliances occur with scientists located outside of the local area, including other countries. More firms located in defined clusters of the biotechnology industry engage in collaborative R&D than do firms located elsewhere. University scientists are the main research partners (although not necessarily locally based) and the main purpose of collaboration by a cluster firm is access to basic research. One of the main purposes of such collaborations for a non-cluster firm is product development. Firms engaged in collaborative R&D exhibit better innovation performance. Location continues to be important for start-up companies. Locational inertia is important for established firms, who acknowledge the importance of reputation and networks, as well as factors like nearness to universities, venture capitalists, and the supply of skilled labour, in the process of innovation.

Keywords: biotechnology, R&amp, D, collaboration, clusters, university-industry

23. Bagchi-Sen, S. 2003. An Empirical Analysis of Migration in Information-Intensive Work in the United States, The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 23(1), pp. 337-366.


The purpose of this study is threefold: to analyse the metropolitan origin and destination patterns of movers in information-intensive work, to examine the demographic and work characteristics of movers, and to determine the odds of an intermetropolitan move as opposed to an intrametropolitan move based on demographic and work characteristics. In this study, two industry categories (high technology manufacturing and advanced producer services) and one occupation category (engineers) are used as surrogates of information-intensive work. A much larger portion of moves are usually intrametropolitan as opposed to intermetropolitan. The data for the analysis were collected from Public Use Micro Sample data files of the 1990 US census. The findings show the dominance of large metropolitan areas as major origins and destinations; however, the importance of existing and emerging high tech agglomerations cannot be ignored. Selected findings of the determinants of migration show that males, whites, advanced degree holders, never-married persons are more likely to move compared to females, nonwhites, college degree holders and/or married persons. Findings also show the importance of producer services in the geographic mobility of females. However, in general, more female movers are in technical occupations and more male movers are executives and professionals. The research findings also show variations in terms of demographic and work characteristics across information-intensive work and metropolitan move categories despite the similarities in origin and destination patterns

22. Hall*, L. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2002. A Study of R&D, Innovation and Business Performance in the Canadian Biotechnology Industry, Technovation, Vol. 22, pp. 231-244.


This study examines the relationships among R&D intensity, innovation measures, and business performance in the Canadian biotechnology industry, which experienced rapid growth in the number of firms and revenues between 1994 and 1997. A sample of 74 biotechnology companies in Canada is used for the analysis (the response rate of the postal questionnaire survey was 23.8%). In addition, geographic variations in barriers affecting innovation and factors influencing the business performance of biotechnology firms are analyzed. Results of the study show that R&D intensity correlates with patent measures, while innovation measured in terms of new product introductions is associated with business performance. Canadian firms attribute their business performance to internal advantages to a greater extent than external factors. The Canadian regulatory process is the greatest barrier to innovation. This study shows that while R&D and scientific breakthroughs drive innovation in the biotechnology industry, market demand plays a critical role in business performance of firms.

21. Bagchi-Sen, S., Hall*, L., and Petryshyn*, L. 2001. A Study of University-Industry Linkages in the Biotechnology Industry: Perspectives from Canada, International Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 3. (3/4), pp. 390-410.


This study focuses on the trends in university-industry linkages in the Canadian biotechnology industry. Technology transfer from university to industry has been a main component in biotechnology innovation. In most industrialised countries, the government has played a role in the development of university-industry relationships. Studies have focused on the pros and cons of university-industry linkages as well as the impact of government funding and regulation on high technology innovation. This paper seeks to understand the patterns of university-industry collaboration, factors influencing such collaboration and the role of government support in university-industry partnerships in three main regions of biotechnology innovation in Canada. These three areas are Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Results show that most collaborations within Canada are with local universities as well as with foreign universities. Ontario-based firms are driven by product development whereas Montreal and Vancouver based firms are motivated by their access to university scientists and university research. Government support is acknowledged for firm-based research and technology transfer.

Keywords: innovation, biotechnology, university-industry collaboration, Canada

20. Hall*, L. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2001. An Analysis of R&D, Innovation, and Business Performance in the U.S. Biotechnology Industry, International Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 3 (3/4), pp. 267-286.


This study examines the relationship between R&D intensity, innovation and business performance in the US biotechnology industry. A related objective is to analyse the similarities and differences in innovation strategies, factors affecting business performance, and barriers to innovation in R&D and product/process oriented biotechnology firms. The data for the study are gathered through a postal survey and personal interviews with company personnel involved in R&D. Results show that, during the study period (1993- 1998), R&D intensive firms were successful in obtaining both domestic and international patents as well as contract revenue through licensing agreements. Product/process oriented firms showed some commercial success in that some of them note a growth in pre-tax profit. Both R&D and product/process oriented firms note some differences in rating the importance of specific innovation strategies and barriers. However, both groups agree that quality control is important and collaboration, specifically with university scientists, is important for continued success. All firms rate regulations in the US and in foreign markets as major barriers to innovation.

Keywords: R&amp, D intensity, innovation, barriers, biotechnology

19. Bagchi-Sen, S. 2001. Product Innovation and Competitive Advantage in an Area of Industrial Decline: The Niagara Region of Canada, Technovation, Vol. 21 (1), January, pp. 45-54.


This paper examines similarities and differences between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with different levels of reported product innovation. These SMEs are located in an area (the Niagara region in southern Ontario) that has suffered industrial decline during the last three decades. Furthermore, SMEs in this region are in traditional or late-cycle manufacturing sectors (e.g., fabricated metal). The research findings show that SMEs claiming to pursue product innovation are better performers in terms of total and export sales. SMEs with higher levels of product innovation rated the following strategies as significantly more important compared with SMEs with lower levels of innovation: the expansion of R&D efforts, incremental innovation, new product development, and new export market development. In contrast, SMEs with lower levels of product innovation emphasized the importance of cost-based pricing and their market development is focused on Canada. Both groups of product innovators have adopted similar types of process innovation, but the SMEs with higher levels of product innovation note higher levels of benefit from process changes compared with manufacturers with lower levels of product innovators. In a similar fashion, SMEs with higher levels of product innovation use external service inputs for problem-solving and business development in the face of a multitude of competitive problems within the local economy (such as the lack of skilled or specialist labor, tax burden, etc). In sum, SMEs pursuing innovation in traditional sectors in peripheral regions are showing better possibilities of adjustment in a dynamic global environment.

18. Bagchi-Sen, S. 2001. Wage Variations in Advanced Producer Service Work in New York, The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 21 (3), pp. 64-86.


The purpose of this article is to examine the effects of demographic and human capital factors on wage variation within the New York Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area. White-collar workers in the advanced producer service sector are categorised into high-order and low-order occupational groups. Furthermore, the sample includes only single never-married workers. The data are obtained from 1990 PUMS 1 per cent census files. The results show that the demographic and human capital factors explain very little variation in wages in Manhattan. However, the predictive power of the above variables improves in other portions of the metropolitan area. The results also show that the gap between whites and minorities are much larger than the male-female gap after accounting for education and work status. The findings imply the importance of institutional differences in internal labour market conditions (e.g. employer-employee relations, upward mobility, glass ceiling, sheltering and bargaining) affecting wage differences among race-gender groups.

17. Plewe*, B. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2001. Use of Ternary Histograms for the Visualization of Racial Segregation, The Professional Geographer, Vol. 53 (3), pp. 347-360.


Assessing the level and patterns of residential segregation is an important part of understanding many problems of today's cities. Traditional statistical measures of segregation, such as the exposure indices and the dissimilarity index, are useful but incomplete indicators. This study introduces a new graphical technique, the weighted ternary histogram, which visualizes complex patterns in the location of two or three subgroups of a population. The resultant graphs complement the common indices and expand on their descriptive power in the processes of assessment and hypothesis formulation. When the residential locations of different races in three midsize American cities are compared, the graphs show subtle differences in the pattern of residential segregation among the three cities.

Keywords:: racial segregationscientific visualizationternary diagrams

16. Bagchi-Sen, S. and Kuechler*, L. 2000. Strategic and Functional Orientation of Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Professional Services: An Analysis of Public Accountancy, The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 20(3), July, pp. 117-146.


This study examines how SMEs in public accountancy remain competitive, promote and deliver their services. The association among strategic planning, functional diversification (services and markets), methods of promotion and delivery is also examined. These SMEs face considerable difficulty in overcoming both in-house and external barriers in accessing clients requiring non-traditional services (e.g. management consulting), and clients involved in international business (broadly defined). The results show that the proactive, functionally diversified, and/or internationally oriented firms outperform the reactive, functionally concentrated, and local market oriented firms. The competitive advantage for the former categories is based on flexible specialisation such as customisation of services for specific groups of clients, speed of delivery collaboration with other producer service firms, and specialised skills. These firms utilise informal networks to promote their services with minimal investments in sponsorships or media selling. Face-to-face interaction with clients continues to be the preferred mode of service delivery despite the increased adaptation of local area networks and other modes of internationally technology by the proactive, functionally diversified or internationally oriented firms.

15. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1999. The Small- and Medium-Sized Exporter's Problems: An Empirical Analysis of Canadian Manufacturers, Regional Studies, Vol. 33(3), 231-245.


The small and medium sized exporters' problems: an empirical analysis of Canadian manufacturers, Reg. Studies 33 , 231-245. This paper examines the competitive characteristics of small and medium sized manufacturers from small towns and cities in southern Ontario. The paper is situated within the context of two bodies of theoretical literature. The first is the literature on the dilemmas faced by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) in small open economies, especially in an era of trade liberalization. The second body of literature involves the role and nature of SMEs in employment growth, trade and innovation. A particular focus of this study is to understand the relationship between export orientation and innovation performance. The study is based on a survey of SMEs in the Niagara region, a mature industrial region in the periphery of Toronto. Results confirm that successful exporters from these small urban places are also actively involved in both product and process innovation. As a result, competitive advantage is based on both price and non-price based factors. Competitive problems include issues related to scale economies and the rising import competition from US producers in the post FTA and NAFTA period. Successful entrepreneurs from this region are not only pushing forward with innovation, but strive to become leaders within their market segment. Future studies will focus upon: cross-border comparisons of SMEs with regards to the relationship between innovation and export performance; competitive strategies and technical problems; and innovation and export market development efforts in other countries of the Asia-Pacific region.

14. Bagchi-Sen, S. and MacPherson, A.D. 1999. The Competitive Characteristics of Small- and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Firms in the U.S. and Canada: Empirical Evidence from a Crossborder Region, Growth and Change, Vol. 30(3), 315-336.


This paper examines the competitive characteristics of small and medium‐sized manufacturing firms (SMFs) in a Canada‐U.S. crossborder region (the Niagara Frontier). Particular attention is given to the innovation and business performance of comparably‐sized firms on both sides of the border. The results of two firm‐level surveys are presented. A comparative analysis of the two groups suggests that Canadian Sh4Fs exhibit significantly stronger export and innovation performance than their US. counterparts. The results also suggest that U.S. firms face tougher competitive difficulties arising fiom specific national and regional circumstances, including shortages of skilled labor, higher corporate tax rates, rising import competition, and a more complex regulatory environment. The implications of the empirical results are discussed in the context of policy options for regional economic development in crossborder zones such as the Niagara Frontier

13. Bagchi-Sen, S. and Sen*, J. 1997. The Current State of Knowledge in International Investments in Producer Services, Environment and Planning A, Vol. 29, pp. 1153-1174.✌29:y:1997:i:7:p:1153-1174


In this paper the authors review recent research on the characteristics and operations of service multinationals. To provide an understanding of the determinants of internationalization, entry modes, and strategies of product and market diversification, examples are taken from producer service firms with specific emphasis upon accounting and advertising services. The competitive advantage of service multinationals in the United States and Western Europe is at the core of most discussion; however, the competitive strategies of the Japanese advertising firms vis-à-vis their Western counterparts are discussed to highlight interorganizational differences. This paper is organized into five sections: the definition of services and the determinants of growth in producer services in the industrially advanced nations; theoretical explanations of international investments in services; empirical research on the determinants of internationalization, entry mode, and business strategies of service firms; industry-specific examples of competitiveness in accounting and advertising; and implications for future research.

12. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1997. The Location of Service Industries in Large, Medium, and Small Metropolitan Areas in the United States, Urban Geography, Vol. 18, pp. 264-281. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1997. Introduction: Special Issue on Economic Restructuring and Labor Markets, Urban Geography, Vol. 18, pp. 189-191.


The role of services in regional development has been one of the core topics of research in industrial geography. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between service employment and labor-market characteristics. The effect of localization economies on the distribution of service employment also is examined. The results show that the response of services to labor-market characteristics is relatively similar between large-and medium-sized metropolitan areas compared to large- and small-sized metropolitan areas. The significance of low-order white-collar and pink-collar work forces in attracting service employment at all levels of the metropolitan hierarchy implies that the impact on skills and earnings would be moderate. Manufacturing concentration, low labor quality, and a perception of higher wages are deterrents to growth in services, whereas localization economies and high-order labor are significant in determining certain types of service employment in metropolitan areas.

11. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1995. FDI in US Producer Services: A Temporal Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in the Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate Sectors, Regional Studies, Vol. 29, pp. 159- 170.


FDI in US producer services: a temporal analysis of foreign direct investment in the finance, insurance and real estate sectors, Reg. Studies 29, 159–170. Much of the expansion of FDI in the United States in the 1980s has been a direct result of the growth of FDI in the service sector. Dominant positions in FDI in services are occupied by banking and other finance-related services. In this study, the temporally varying effects of a set of location determinants on the location of FDI in finance, insurance and real estate sectors are examined. The literature on the location of service industries indicate that the location of producer services is affected by market pull factors, specialized labour pools and large diversified service agglomerations. The determinants considered in the state-level analysis of FDI are agglomerations of domestic employment in finance, insurance and real estate, the size of the metropolitan population, population growth and the value of commercial and industrial property. Findings indicate that the locational association of FDI in finance, insurance and real estate with their domestic counterparts weakened in the late 1980s compared to the early 1980s. However, the locational pull exerted by the growth-oriented states has become stronger over time. The effect of land value has remained stable over time. In the late 1980s, the growth-oriented states developed new industrial complexes based on both manufacturing and service industries and these complexes offered foreign investors potential clients and the scope of developing market niches. The weakening association with domestic service agglomeration may imply market saturation and hence lower margins of profitability for the newcoming foreign investors. As a result, foreign investors' locational strategy within the United States exhibited market diversification. Such geographical diversification of FDI in the late 1980s was also promoted by liberal banking legislation in addition to the economic forces described above. In sum, the growth of service FDI in the United States raises questions regarding the development implications of such investments and these questions are similar to the questions asked regarding the role of services in general in economic development.

10. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1995. Structural Determinants of Occupational Shifts for Males and Females in the U.S. Labor Market, The Professional Geographer, Vol. 47, pp. 268-279.


This paper examines the effects of structural transformation on occupational shifts for socio-demographic groups. Although services add more jobs than manufacturing, shifts in manufacturing industries continue to be a source of growth in high-order white and blue collar work for males. However, for females, these industries are significant only in determining pink collar and low-order blue collar work. Similar trends are noted for advanced producer services such as finance, insurance, and real estate. Other nonmanufacturing sectors with relatively stable product markets and strong internal labor market conditions, such as construction and transportation, continue to be significant in creating a range of jobs for males. Although males are faced with reduced opportunities following the loss of manufacturing jobs, male-female differentials prevail in the labor market; males continue to fill high-order jobs in services, and females cluster in low-order occupations and in sectors with volatile product markets.

Key Words: labor marketservice industriesoccupational segmentationgender

9. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1995. Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: Source-specific Variations, Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 77B, pp. 17-29.


This paper examines the temporally and spatially varying associations between the growth in direct investment and employment growth in the U.S. affiliates of foreign manufacturing firms. The employment effects of FDI from Canadian, West European, and Japanese manufacturers are analyzed. The employment effect showed a significant shift over time for Japanese investors. During the late 1980s after endaka, Japanese investment in manufacturing especially in automobile and related industry increased dramatically in the United States. The spatial analysis captures the employment effect of Japanese FDI-it is the only source country to have a positive employment effect in the industrially declining NorthCentral region. FDI from Canada associated with significant employment growth in the South and the West. In the late 1980s, Canadian investors sought new locations in the South while continuing to cluster in the border region either to service exports or to gain a foothold in the U.S. market. The West European investments associated with employment growth in the Northeast, South, and West regions. These relationships show that locational inertia continues to attract FDI from the West European countries to the Northeast. Some dispersal of FDI to the South and the West is a response to the locational adjustments of their U.S. counterparts. West European FDI, however, associated with employment retrenchment in the NorthCentral region. Such retrenchment occurred from the acquisition and subsequent rationalization of the manufacturing process of troubled U.S. manufacturing firms.

8. Pigozzi, B. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 1995. Impacts of Acquisitions and New Plants on the Employment in U.S. Affiliates of Foreign Manufacturing Firms, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Vol. 86, pp. 328-338.


Using the polynomially distributed lags model we differentiate, through time, the aggregate impacts of the two major modes of Foreign Direct Investment upon employment within the foreign manufacturing sector in the US. Our results indicate that the impact of FDI is not uniform; it is specific to entry mode. The acquisition of domestic firms by foreign interests appears to have little aggregate positive impact upon employment, while new plants, constructed by foreign concerns, have positive employment impacts on the foreign manufacturing sector in the United States.

7. Pandit, K. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 1993. The Spatial Dynamics of U.S. Fertility, 1970-1990, Growth and Change, Vol. 24, pp. 229-246.


The fertility downturn in the U.S. since the baby boom has been accompanied by a growing divergence in regional fertility rates. This paper examines the spatial implications of recent fertility trends. Two interrelated questions are posed. First, how and why have the time trends in fertility varied spatially? Second, how have the regional patterns of fertility changed over time? These questions are investigated using a continuous spatio‐temporal model of U.S. fertility built using the Dual Expansion Method. Results indicate that the pace of fertility decline has been the most rapid in the Northeast and the slowest in the West. Further, the traditional North‐South distinctions in fertility rates are being replaced by East‐West patterns. These changes tentatively suggest that regional ethnic composition is becoming an increasingly important factor in accounting for the spatial variation of U.S. fertility.

6. Bagchi-Sen, S. and Pigozzi, B. 1993. Occupational and Industrial Diversification in the United States: Implications of the New Spatial Division of Labor, The Professional Geographer, Vol. 45, pp. 44-54.


Traditionally, industrial diversification has been stressed as a tool for achieving economic growth and development. The literature on the spatial division of labor also incorporates the importance of occupational structure while recognizing the continued role of industrial structure. This paper examines the changing association between industrial and occupational diversification and the associations of industrial and occupational diversification with indicators of the business environment. The results indicate a weakening association between the industrial and occupational employment structures over time. Industrial diversification continues to be important for economic development but occupational diversification operates somewhat differently. For example, a trend toward occupational diversification is associated with employment growth but with lower levels of income. This suggests that occupational diversity may not necessarily ensure job quality, and hence, the lower levels of income.

Key Words: occupational diversificationindustrial diversificationspatial division of labor

5. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1991. The Location of Foreign Direct Investment in Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate in the United States, Geografiska Annaler, Vol. 73B, pp. 187-197.


This study examines the spatial distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) in finance, insurance, and real estate (FIRE) in the United States. A set of locational determinants is selected from the literature on the location of U.S. service industries to explain the pattern of foreign service firms' direct investment activity in the United States. These determinants are the agglomeration of domestic producer services, the share of metropolitan population, the value of commercial and industrial property, and population growth. The effects of these factors are also found to vary across U.S. regions. For example, an increase in the value of land parcels positively influenced the growth of FDI in the South. However, the effect of a rise in land value detracted foreign investment in the Northcentral region. Such findings necessitate future research on FDI in the nonmanufacturing sector at disaggregated spatial scales in order to understand the impact of FDI on local economies.

4. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1991. Employment in Foreign Owned Manufacturing Firms in the United States - The Impact of Modes of Entry, Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Vol. 82, pp. 282-294.

3. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1991. Temporal Changes in the Composition of Foreign Direct Investment in the Great Lakes Region, The East Lakes Geographer, Vol. 26, pp.1-14.

2. Bagchi-Sen, S. and Wheeler, J.O. 1989. A Spatial and Temporal Model of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States, Economic Geography, Vol. 65, pp.113-129.


This study analyzes the spatial distribution of foreign direct investment among metropolitan areas in the United States for the periods 1974–1978 and 1979–1983. A model is developed to test the importance of population size, population growth rate, and per capita retail sales in determining levels of foreign investment. Casetti's expansion method is used to test whether or not the regression parameters of the explanatory variables are spatially and temporally unstable. The results indicate that the model varies both spatially and over time. Heavily concentrated in northeastern metropolitan areas in 1974–1978, especially New York, foreign direct investment dispersed widely to the south and west in 1979–1983. In keeping with the general transformation of the U.S. metropolitan economy, foreign direct investment shifted noticeably from the manufacturing sector to the service sector during the study period.

1. Bagchi-Sen, S. 1989. Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Metropolitan Areas, 1979-1983, Urban Geography, Vol. 10, pp.121-137.


Ordinary least-squares multiple regression is used to construct a path diagram showing the direct and indirect effects of corporate location factors on the share of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the 44 largest metropolitan areas in the United States during the period 1979-1983. The results show that the metropolitan areas with the most rapid population growth over the period 1970-1980 correspond to the centers with greater shares of FDI. The growth in Fortune measure, an indicator of the market dynamics of the metropolitan areas, has a direct effect on the level of investment. The growth of employment in manufacturing and in finance, insurance, and real estate, used as indexes of labor supply and of producer services, have indirect effects on FDI. The results show that foreign direct investors tend to concentrate in centers offering strong markets and strong bases of producer services, regardless of their regional locations.

Books and other publications

Books (*current or former graduate students):

Weaver*, R.C., Bagchi-Sen, S., Knight*, J., and Frazier*, A. 2016. Shrinking Cities: Understanding Shrinkage and Decline in the United States. Routledge.



Edited Books:

Bagchi-Sen, S. and Lawton Smith, H. 2006 (Editors) Economic Geography: Past, Present and Future. Routledge.


McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. (Editors) (2015). Innovation Spaces in Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.


Farinha, L. M. Carmo, Ferreira, Joao J.M., Lawton Smith, H. Bagchi-Sen, S. (Editors) (2015) Handbook of Research on Global Competitive Advantage through Innovation and Entrepreneurship. IGI Global.



Other Publications (*current and former undergraduate/graduate students):

Bagchi-Sen, S., Canty*, M., and Schunder*, T., (under preparation). Disparities in drug accessibility for people living with HIV and AIDS. In Transforming Global Health: Interdisciplinary Challenges, Perspectives, and Strategies. Editors: Pavani K. Ram and Korydon Smith. Routledge.

Farinha, L., Bagchi-Sen, S. [forthcoming]. Following the Footprints of SME Competitiveness in a High Technology Sector. In: M. Peris-Ortiz, M., J. Ferreira & J. Merigó (Eds.). Knowledge, Innovation and Sustainable Development in Organizations: A Dynamic Capabilities Perspective, Springer.

Bagchi-Sen, S. and Rogerson, P. (forthcoming). Trends and Determinants of Women in Patenting in the United States. In New Perspectives in Gender, Science & Innovation – edited by Helen Lawton Smith, Colette Henry, Henry Etzkowitz and Alexandra Poulovassilis. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Lawton Smith, H., Bagchi-Sen, S., and Edmunds, L. (forthcoming) Universities and bioscience-based local development in Oxfordshire: where is the money? Handbook on Universities and Regional Development. Editor: Attila Varga. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Bagchi-Sen, S. and Schunder*, T. (2018). The Internationalization of Producer and Professional Services. In The Routledge Companion to the Geography of International Business. Editors: Cook, G. and McDonald, F. London: Routledge.

Bagchi-Sen, S., Edmunds, L., Lawton Smith, H., and Lindholm Dahstrand, A. (2017). Understanding the Role of the Local in Technological Innovation Systems: Research-Based Firms and Regional Development in Sweden and the UK. In Proceedings of the 20th Uddevalla Symposium on Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Industrial Dynamics in Internationalized Regional Economies. Editor: Iréne Bernhard. Sweden: University West.

Kedron*, P. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2017. A Study of Technology and Policy in Liquid Biofuel Production in the United States. In Ashgate Research Companion to Energy Geographies. Editors: Bouzaroski, S. and Pasqualetti, M. London: Ashgate.

Schunder*, T. and Bagchi-Sen, S. (forthcoming). Diverse patterns of innovation in India for broader impacts. In Diversities of Innovation. Editor: Ulrich Hilpert. London: Routledge.

Bagchi-Sen, S. and Kedron*, P. 2015. Environmental governance and industrial development: A case of U.S. Biofuel Industry. In Handbook of Politics and Technology, edited by Ulrich Hilpert. London: Routledge.

McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2015. Introduction. In Innovation Spaces in Asia, pp. 1-21. Editors: McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Kedron*, P. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2015. Evolving Global Innovation Networks of Indian Pharmaceutical Companies, In Innovation Spaces in Asia, pp. 189-207. Editors: McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Meraxa*, T.A. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2015.The Emergence of Indonesian Multinational Enterprises, In Innovation Spaces in Asia, pp. 208-230. Editors: McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Gifford, E. Holgersson, M., McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2015. 12. Tapping into Western Technologies by Chinese Multinational Enterprises: Geely’s Purchase of Volvo Cars and Huawei’s Hiring of Ericsson Employees in Sweden. In Innovation Spaces in Asia, pp. 231-255. Editors: McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Bagchi-Sen, S., Schunder*, T., and Bourelos, E. 2015. Foreign Direct Investment in R&D and the Base of the Pyramid: Is a New Space of Innovation Emerging in India? In Innovation Spaces in Asia, pp. 256-278. Editors: McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2015. Conclusions. In Innovation Spaces in Asia, pp. 354-368. Editors: McKelvey, M. and Bagchi-Sen, S. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Bagchi-Sen, S. and Schunder*, T. 2015. International Business: Geographic Aspects, In International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, pp. 484-489. Section Editors: Susan Hanson and James Sidaway. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Bagchi-Sen, S. 2011. Review of Gregory, Neil F.; Nollen, Stanley D.; Tenev, Stoyan, New Industries from New Places: The Emergence of the Hardware and Software Industries in China and India. H-Asia, H-Net Reviews. August, 2011. URL:

Ptak*, S. and Bagchi-Sen, S. 2011. Innovation systems in emerging economies: the case of India. In The Handbook of Regional Innovation & Growth edited by P. Cooke, B. Asheim, R. Boschma, R. Martin, D. Schwartz and F. Toedtling. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Bagchi-Sen, S. 2010. Book Review: The Digital Economy: Business Organization, Production Processes and Regional Developments. Authors: Edward J. Malecki and Bruno Moriset. Economic Geography, Vol. 86 (1).

Bagchi-Sen, S. 2010. Foreign Direct Investment. In Warf, B. (ed). Encyclopedia of Geography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Herath*, T.C., Bagchi-Sen S., and Rao, H.R. 2006. Gender Issues and Vulnerability to Internet Crime, Eileen Trauth (ed), in Gender and Information Technology Encyclopedia, IDEA Group Publishing.

Bagchi-Sen, S. 2001. Direct Foreign Investment. In The International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Editors: Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, Section Editor (Geography): Susan Hanson. Oxford, UK; Elsevier Sciences Ltd.

Bagchi-Sen, S. 2001. Book Review: Industrial Location. Author: Roger Hayter. Economic Geography.

Bagchi-Sen, S. 1999. Book Review: World Cities in a World System. Authors: Paul L. Knox and Peter J. Taylor. Economic Geography, Vol. 75, pp. 95-96.

Lake, R., S. Hanson, S. Bagchi-Sen, R. Cline-Cole, J. DeFilippis, M. Douglass, J. Emel, R. Johns, V. Lawson, M. Leaf, R. Leichenko, S. Marston, T. McGee, K. Pandit, S. Pincetl, R. Schroeder, E. Sheppard & M. Waterstone. 2000. Towards a comprehensive geographical perspective on urban sustainability. Final Report of the 1998 NSF Workshop on Urban Sustainability. Center for Urban Policy Research, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey. 29 pages. [Organizers: Robert Lake and Susan Hanson; author names are in alphabetical order]

Bagchi-Sen, S. 1997. Book Review: Gender, Work, and Place. Authors: Susan Hanson and Geraldine Pratt. Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 37(2), pp. 357-359

Bagchi-Sen, S. 1995. Comment on Cross-National Labour Migration and Local-Level Planning: the Experience of Bangladesh by R.A. Mahmood, Regional Development Dialogue, Vol. 16, pp. 135-136.

Bagchi-Sen, S. and P. Das*. 1995. Foreign Direct Investment by the U.S. Bells. In Telecommunications Politics. Ownership and Control of the Information Highway in Developing Countries. Edited by Bella Mody, Johannes M. Bauer, and Joseph D. Straubhaar, pp. 85-112. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Bagchi-Sen, S. and Birou*, L. 1992. Buyer/Supplier Linkages of Foreign Manufacturing Firms in the United States, Decision Sciences Institute Proceedings, Vol. 3, pp. 1772-1774.

Bagchi-Sen, S. 1991. A Study of the Location of Foreign Acquisitions and New Plant Establishments in the U.S. Market, Papers and Proceedings of Applied Geography Conferences, Vol. 14, pp. 132-139.