Carol Berman


Carol Berman.

Carol Berman


Carol Berman


Research Topics

Primate social behavior and social structure including parent-offspring relationships; Evolution of cooperative behavior; Kinship; Social style and conflict management; Juvenile social networks, Play and play signaling, Impacts of tourism on primate behavior and conservation

Contact Information

165 Spaulding Quad Bldg 6

Phone: (716) 645-0429


  • Postdoctoral Fellowship at Northwestern University
  • PhD, University of Cambridge, UK
  • BA, Brandeis University

Selected Publications

A.    Book

1. B. Chapais and C. M. Berman.  KINSHIP AND BEHAVIOR IN PRIMATES. Oxford University Press, New York, 520 pp., 2004.

B. Peer Reviewed Publications (full length journal articles and chapters)

E. Dunayer & C.M. Berman. Infant-Directed Handling Among Primates. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY, Special Issue, Vol. 31. 2018.

K. Balasubramaniam, H. Ogawa, J-H Li & C.M. Berman. Tibetan Macaque Social Style: Co-variant and Quasi-independent Evolution. In: The Behavioral Ecology of Tibetan Macaques, ed. by L. Sun, J-H. Li and P. Garber, Springer Press. Pp.141-171.

E. Dunayer & C.M. Berman. Time matching between grooming partners: Do distinctions between pauses vs. bout terminations matter? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, online DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22968, 2019

A. Yanagi & C.M. Berman. Nonhuman primate social play: Coping with costs. In The Cambridge Handbook of Play: Developmental and Disciplinary Perspectives. Edited by P. K. Smith and J.L.Roopnarine, Cambridge University Press, pp. 67-83, 2018. DOI:10.1017/9781108131384.

K.N. Balasubramaniam, B.A. Beisner, C.M. Berman, A. De Marco, J. Duboscq, S. Koirala,  B. Majolo, A.J.J. MacIntosh, R. McFarland, S. Molesti,  H.Ogawa, O. Petit, G. Schino, S. Sosa, B. Thierry, F.B.M. de Waal, & B.J. McCowan. The influence of phylogeny, social style and sociodemographic factors on macaque social networks. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, 80: e22727, 2018. online DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22727, 2017.

K.N. Balasubramaniam & C.M. Berman. Market-based Grooming Exchange for Resource Tolerance in a free-ranging Group of Rhesus Macaques at Cayo Santiago, BEHAVIOUR, online DOI:10.1163/1568539X-00003462.

E.A. Weigel & C.M. Berman. Body signals used during social play in captive immature western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).  PRIMATES, online

E. Dunayer & C.M. Berman. Infant handling enhances social bonds in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). BEHAVIOUR, 154: 875-907, 2017. DOI:10.1163/1568539X-00003448.

A. Yanagi & C.M. Berman. Does behavioural flexibility contribute to successful play among juvenile rhesus macaques? BEHAVIOURAL ECOLOGY AND SOCIOBIOLOGY, 71: 156-175, 2017. DOI 10.1007/s00265-017-2377-2.

E.S. Dunayer & C.M. Berman.   Theoretical origins and interpretive debates, and proximate perspective: A response to Sánchez-Amaro and Amici. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, published online October 3, 2016, printed version: 121: 131-136, 2016.

K.N. Balasubramaniam , E.S. Dunayer, L.J. Gilhooly, K.A. Rosenfield & C.M. Berman. Group Size, Contest Competition, and Social Structure in Cayo Santiago Rhesus Macaques. BEHAVIOUR, 151: 1759-1798, 2014.

A. Yanagi & C.M. Berman. Functions of multiple play signals in free-ranging juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). BEHAVIOUR, 151: 1983-2014, 2014.

C.M. Berman. Primate kinship: contributions from Cayo Santiago. AMER. J. PRIMATOL. Featured article for a special edition, Online: DOI=10.1002/ajp.22383&ArticleID=2177526.

K.N Balasubramaniam, K, Dittmar, C.M. Berman, M., Butovskaya, M.A. Cooper, B. Majolo, H. Ogawa, G. Schino, B.Thierry & Waal. Hierarchical Steepness and Phylogenetic Models I: Phylogenetic Signals in Macaca, ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR., 83: 1207-1218, 2012.

K.N Balasubramaniam, K, Dittmar, C.M. Berman, M., Butovskaya, M.A. Cooper,B. Majolo, H. Ogawa, G. Schino, B.Thierry & Waal. Hierarchical Steepness, Counter-aggression and the Macaque Social Scale. AMERICAN J. PRIMATOLOGY, 74: 915-925, 2012.

 A. Yanagi & C.M. Berman. Gestural signals during social play in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): A systematic analysis. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Published online: DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22219, 9/30/13.

C.M. Berman & B. Thierry. Variation in Kin Bias: Species Differences and Time Constraints in Macaques, BEHAVIOUR, 147: 1863-1887, 2010.

 C. M. Berman. Primate Kin Preferences: Explaining Diversity. In: C. A. Salmon and T. K. Shackelford (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Family Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press, pp.248-278, 2011.

K.N. Balasubramaniam, C.M. Berman, H. Ogawa & J.H. Li. Using biological markets principles to examine patterns of grooming exchange in Macaca thibetana. AMERICAN J. PRIMATOLOGY, 73: 1269-1279, 2011.

C.M. Berman. Kinship: Family Ties and Social Behavior. In: Primates in Perspective, 2nd edition. Edited by C.J. Campbell, A Fuentes, K.C. MacKinnon, M. Panger and S.K. Bearder. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 576-587, 2011.

C.M. Berman, C.S. Ionica, M. Dorner & J-H Li. Post-conflict affiliation between former opponents in Macaca thibetana: For males only? INTERNATIONAL J. PRIMATOLOGY, 27: 827-854, 2006.

C.M. Berman, J-H Li, H. Ogawa, C.S. Ionica & H. Yin. Primate tourism and infant risk among Macaca thibetana at Mt. Huangshan, China. INTERNATIONAL J. PRIMATOLOGY, 28:1123-1141, 2007.

C.M. Berman, C.S. Ionica & J-H Li. Male tolerance and support among male Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) on Mt Huangshan, China. BEHAVIOUR, 144: 631-661, 2007

C.M. Berman, C.S. Ionica & J-H Li. Dominance style among Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) on Mt Huangshan, China. INTERNATIONAL J. PRIMATOLOGY, 25(6): 1283-1312, 2004.

 C. Chauvin & C. M. Berman. Intergenerational transmission of behavior. In: HOW SOCIETIES ARISE: THE MACAQUE MODEL, edited by B. Thierry, M. Singh and W. Kaumanns, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 209-234, 2004.

 C.M. Berman. Developmental Aspects of Kin Bias. In: KINSHIP AND BEHAVIOR IN PRIMATES. Edited by B. Chapais & C.M. Berman, Oxford Univ. Press, NY, pp. 317-346, 2004.

C.M. Berman & E. Kapsalis. Development of kin bias among rhesus monkeys: Maternal transmission or individual learning? ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 58: 883-894, 1999.

E. Kapsalis & C.M. Berman. Models of affiliative relationships among free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) I. Criteria for kinship. BEHAVIOUR, 133:1209-1234, 1996.

 E. Kapsalis & C.M. Berman. Models of affiliative relationships among free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) II. Testing predictions for three hypothesized organising principles. BEHAVIOUR, 133:1235-1263, 1996.

C.M. Berman, K.L.R. Rasmussen & S.J. Suomi. Group size, maternal behavior and social networks: A natural experiment with free-ranging monkeys. AN. BEHAV., 53:405-421, 1997.

C.M. Berman, K.L.R. Rasmussen & S.J. Suomi. Reproductive consequences of rejecting and non‑rejecting care patterns during estrus for free‑ranging rhesus monkey mothers.  BEHAV. ECOL. SOCIOBIOL., 32: 391‑399, 1993.

R.L. Johnson, C.M. Berman & I. Malik.  An integrative model of the lactational and environmental control of mating in female rhesus monkeys. ANIMAL BEHAV., 46:63‑78, 1993.

C. M. Berman.  Intergenerational transmission of maternal rejection rates among free‑ranging rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 39:329‑337, 1990.

C.M. Berman.  Maternal condition and offspring sex ratio in a group of free‑ranging rhesus monkeys: An eleven year study. AMERICAN NATURALIST, 131:307‑328, 1988.

C.M. Berman.  The ontogeny of social relationships between infant monkeys and group companions: I. Social networks and differentiation. ANIMAL BEHAV. 30:149‑162, 1982.