One framework that can help you categorize your learning outcomes is Bloom’s Taxonomy for Knowledge, which organizes learning outcomes by levels of cognitive tasks.
When designing course learning outcomes, it is important to determine what it is you would like students to be able to do by the end of the course. A key component of this is identifying the level of complexity for each outcome. Using Bloom’s allows you to determine whether there is variety in the complexity of your current learning outcomes and, if not, how to get there.
Bloom’s Taxonomic Pyramid orders the levels of objectives from the lowest order of cognition (remembering) to the highest (creating)(Krathwohl, 2002).
We have compiled a list of verbs that can help you determine which category your learning outcomes fall into or to create a new learning outcome for a specific level.
While we’ll discuss teaching and activities in (see Active Learning), it’s important to know now that some categories of learning outcomes fit better with some types of instruction.
For example, if you want students to be creative in your classroom, a lecture is not the most efficient way to allow them to practice this skill. The following list matches learning outcome categories to instructional practices.
|Learning Outcomes Categories||Instructional Practices|
|Apply||Instructor/Peer Modeling |
|Analyze||Instructor/Peer Modeling |
|Evaluate||Instructor/Peer Modeling |
|Create||Instructor Modeling |
In order to create a variety of appropriate learning outcomes for students: