The Marmara, Turkey Earthquake of August 17, 1999: Reconnaissance Report

Edited by C. Scawthorn; Contributors: M. Bruneau, R. Eguchi, T. Holzer, G. Johnson, J. Mander, J. Mitchell, W. Mitchell, A. Papageorgiou and G. Webb

MCEER-00-0001 | 03/23/2000 | 202 pages

Keywords: Marmara, Turkey earthquake, August 17, 1999.  Kocaeli, Turkey earthquake, August 17, 1999.  Damage.  Seismological characteristics.  North Anatolian fault zone.  Strong motion records.  Ground motion.  Liquefaction.  Landslides. Subsidence.  Geotechnical effects.  Building foundations.  Improved soil.  Earth structures.  Building characteristics.  Building codes.  Steel structures.  Highway bridges.   Roads.  Railroads. Port facilities.  Industrial facilities.  Lifelines.  Water distribution systems.  Sewage facilities.  Electric power distribution systems.  Natural gas pipelines.  Emergency response.   Search and rescue.  Social effects.  Reconstruction.  Temporary shelter.  Hospitals.  Radar images.  Satellite images.  Global positioning systems.  GPS-GIS system.

Abstract: The report documents the damage caused by the 1999 earthquake that affected the Marmara region in the Kocaeli Province of Turkey.  It discusses the seismological characteristics (magnitude, seismic moment, epicenter, hypocenter) of the earthquake.  A comparison of the North Anatolian fault with the San Andreas fault is given.  The earthquake's geotechnical effects are described including site response, liquefaction, landslides, subsidence, building foundations, and the response of improved soil and earth structures.  The section on structural damage discusses building characteristics and building codes, soft first stories, and steel structures.  Damage to highway bridges, railroads, and port facilities is described in detail.  The performance of industrial facilities is detailed including business interruptions.  The section on lifelines includes descriptions of damage to water systems, wastewater facilities, electric power systems, and natural gas pipelines.  The social and political effects of the earthquake are examined and an assessment of the emergency response is given.  The section on disaster recovery includes a description of life in temporary shelters, the restoration of education, and health care facilities.  The final section features the use of new technologies (satellite images, global positioning systems, and GPS-GIS interfaces) to gather information about the effects of the earthquake.