Published July 31, 2014
Uninsured smokers who used nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) patches in combination with NRT lozenges nearly doubled their quit rates when using the support of a quitline, according to a study published online ahead of print in the Journal of Smoking Cessation.
A team of scientists from Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI), UB, the Medical University of South Carolina and Yale University School of Medicine evaluated the smoking quit rates of more than 3,000 daily tobacco users who contacted the New York State Smokers’ Quitline. One group of heavy smokers was given a free two-week supply of nicotine patches. A second group of heavy smokers was provided a free two-week supply of both nicotine patches and lozenges. Supportive counseling and follow-up calls were provided by trained quitline specialists.
The results indicated that combination NRT was no more effective in a single-type therapy overall. However, subgroup analyses provided useful insights into reaching and assisting heavy and uninsured smokers. For example, the use of combination therapy can result in higher quit rates among groups reporting a lower socioeconomic status and lower nicotine dependence.
“This finding is important, as lower socioeconomic status smokers are at the highest risk for tobacco-related morbidity and mortality,” says senior author Shannon Carlin-Menter, research assistant professor in the UB Department of Family Medicine, who conducted the research as director of evaluation for the New York State Smokers’ Quitline.
“We know that people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to start smoking and they begin smoking at a younger age,” she says. “They’re more likely to smoke more heavily and less likely to quit. Because they smoke more, lower socioeconomic status smokers suffer a disproportionate amount from smoking-caused disease and are also more likely to suffer the harmful consequences of exposure to secondhand smoke. Unfortunately, we also know that lower socioeconomic smokers are less likely to quit than higher-income smokers. This study found that the group of heavy smokers benefited more from combination NRT coupled with quitline counseling, and therefore were more successful in their quit attempts.”
Study co-author Andrew Hyland, director of the New York State Smokers’ Quitline, chair of the Department Health Behavior at RPCI and research professor in the UB Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, notes the study offers significant public health implications for the delivery of evidence-based cessation treatment. “Quitlines reach underserved populations that often have limited access to in-person cessation treatments. The combination of nicotine replacement when offered in context of a quitline may offer real advantages to smokers from lower socioeconomic strata,” adds Hyland.
Findings of note:
“In an analysis of subgroups of smokers, researchers found that the smoking quit rates of uninsured participants who received combination NRT were significantly higher than the smoking quit rates of uninsured participants who received a single type of NRT. These data provide insights on the ability of quitlines to reach and assist disadvantaged groups with quitting,” says co-author Laure Krupski, a training and development content manager at RPCI.
This study provides valuable insights for quitline managers coping with declining budgets and increased demand for services, notes co-author Martin Mahoney, professor of oncology in the departments of Medicine and Health Behavior at RPCI and research associate professor in the UB Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health. “These findings and future research provide quitlines with the ability to make targeted and informed decisions regarding providing nicotine replacement therapy to callers.”
Smokers who participated in the study were callers to the New York State Smokers’ Quitline, which is part of Roswell Park Tobacco Cessation Services. The quitline offers evidence-based and innovative tobacco-cessation services that help tobacco users break their addiction to nicotine. Telephone and technology-based services are provided and include quit coaching, stop-smoking medications and information or referrals to additional resources. For more information, call 1-866-NY-Quits or visit the quitline online.
The study, titled “Cost and Effectiveness of Combination Nicotine Replacement Therapy among Heavy Smokers Contacting a Quitline,” was funded, in part, by the New York State Smokers’ Quitline and by National Cancer Institute.