Individuals with physical, sensory or learning impairments may
not be able to effectively access electronic information that is
created without universal access in mind. This guidance
explains how certain impairments can affect access, and how to
build content with accessibility in mind.
Individuals with visual impairments may use adaptive technology
such as screen readers to read the words on a webpage aloud.
Screen readers cannot scan and interpret pictures and images.
Additionally, some formats may appear to be in text, but are
actually images of a document.
- Use alt tag descriptions for any images.
- Ensure that PDFs and other text documents can be accessed with
a screen reader.
Visual impairments may include the inability to distinguish
- Do not use color to convey meaning.
Individuals with visual impairments generally do not use a
- Supply keyboard alternatives for mouse usage.
People with visual impairments may not be able to see
information conveyed by video or through visual aids such as
- Provide audio descriptions of events in videos that cannot be
interpreted by audio alone.
- When giving a presentation, convey the information on
PowerPoint slides and other visual aids verbally.
Users might become confused at complex website layouts or
inconsistent navigational schemes.
- Simplify the layout as much as possible.
- Keep the navigational scheme consistent to the degree
Users might have difficulty focusing on lengthy sections of
- Where appropriate, group sections of text under logical
- Organize information into manageable pieces.
Users may not be able to operate a mouse.
- Ensure that all of the functions can be accessed through a
keyboard. Tab from link to link to determine whether the
keyboard can effectively access information on the page.